Water, Sanitation and Health 6 SO WHAT IS LEEDS DOING? One of a small number of universities working on water and sanitation, Leeds focuses on the delivery of effective water services in Africa, Asia, Central and South America. We are helping local governments in less- developed countries to make sensible achievable changes whose effects will be reliable and lasting. While some universities have pockets of expertise, Leeds pulls together physical and social scientists, health experts and environmentalists to address deep-seated issues, for example: •  We have developed effluent treatment standards to ensure waste water can be safely reused for irrigation – and these have been adopted by the World Health Organisation; •  The University is working with Water Aid and Yorkshire Water on the ground in Ethiopia to ensure the safest and most efficient use of waste water there; •  Our work in rural Bangladesh is helping to ensure the safe removal and re-use of fecal sludge from pit latrines; •  In partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, we have pioneered a new approach to analysing the flow of human waste through urban drainage systems, work which is changing policy and making life safer for many living in unhygienic conditions. BUILDING ON STRENGTHS With your support, we can get to grips with some of the key issues of water use in developing countries: •  In agriculture – strategies to enable farmers to grow crops safely and reduce the spread of disease due to unclean water being used for agriculture; •  In climate science – more accurate predictions of changes in rainfall patterns to enable better planning by those responsible for water provision, agriculture and infrastructure; •  In urban planning – new tools to allow fast-growing communities to assess which technologies will best help them to improve sanitation;